تالیفات

 

Behcet’s disease: from east to west

Authers: Fereydoun Davatchi, Farhad Shahram, Cheyda Chams-Davatchi, Hormoz Shams, Abdolhadi Nadji, Massoomeh Akhlaghi, Tahereh Faezi, Zahra Ghodsi, Alireza Faridar, Farima Ashofteh, Bahar Sadeghi Abdollahi

Abstract: Behcet's disease (BD) is classified among vasculitides. There are actually five nationwide surveys of BD: Iran, Japan, China, Korea, and Germany. Among case series, four are on more than 200 cases (Turkey, Morocco, Tunisia, and UK). BD was classically seen around the Silk Route. Now, it is seen everywhere. The male to female ratios were, respectively (in nationwide surveys), 1.19, 0.98, 1.34, 0.63, and 1.40 to 1. The mean age at onset was 26.2, 35.7, 33.8, 29, and ... سال انتشار: 2010
 

Behcet’s disease in Iran: analysis of 6500 cases

Authers: Fereydoun DAVATCHI, Farhad SHAHRAM, Cheyda CHAMS-DAVATCHI, Hormoz SHAMS, Abdolhadi NADJI, Massoomeh AKHLAGHI, Tahereh FAEZI, Zahra GHODSI, Roghieh LARIMI, Farima ASHOFTEH, Bahar SADEGHI ABDOLLAHI

Abstract: To identify the clinical picture of Behcet’s disease in a large cohort of patients (6500) in Iran, over a period of 35 years, and compare them with other large series from around the world. Methods: Patients with Behcet’s disease from all over Iran were seen in the Behcet’s Disease Research Unit by a multidisciplinary team (rheumatologists, dermatologists, and ophthalmologists). Diagnosis was based on ‘expert opinion’. Data were collected on a standardized data sheet (105 ... سال انتشار: 2010
 

Association of CTLA4 Gene Polymorphism in Iranian Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis

Authers: Esfandiar Azizi, Ahmad Massoud, Ali Akbar Amirzargar, Mahdi Mahmoudi, Narjes Soleimanifar, Nima Rezaei, Ahmad Reza Jamshidi, Behrouz Nikbin, Mohammad Hossein Nicknam

Abstract: Introduction Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is a costimulatory molecule expressed by activated T cells. This study was performed to investigate the allele and genotype frequencies of CTLA4 gene polymorphisms in Iranian patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods One hundred and fifty-seven patients with AS and 103 controls were included in this study. Polymorphisms of CTLA4 gene at positions +49 (in exon 1), −318, and −1,147 (in the promoter region) were studied on the genomic DNA using PCR restriction ... سال انتشار: 2010
 

Study of Programmed Cell Death 1 (PDCD1) Gene 2 Polymorphims in Iranian Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis

Authers: Narjes Soleimanifar, Ali Akbar Amirzargar, Mahdi Mahmoudi, Ali Akbar Pourfathollah, Esfandiar Azizi, Ahmad Reza Jamshidi, Nima Rezaei, , Mohammad Taher Tahoori, Katayoon Bidad, Behrouz Nikbin, Mohammad Hossein Nicknam

Abstract: Abstract—Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by axial arthritis in which the genetic–environmental factors seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. This study was performed to investigate the role of polymorphisms of the programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1) gene on susceptibility to AS. In this study, 161 Iranian patients with AS and 208 normal controls were enrolled; two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the PDCD1 ... سال انتشار: 2010
 

A WHO-ILAR COPCORD STUDY (Stage 1, rural study) IN IRAN

Authers: Davatchi, Fereydoun;, Tehran Banihashemi, Arash;, Gholami, Jaleh;, faezi, seyedeh tahereh;, Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein;, Salesi, Mansour, Karimifar, mansour, Essalat-Manesh, Kamal, Barghamdi, Mojgan, Noorolahzadeh, Elham, Dahaghin, Saideh

Abstract: Objective: To study the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints and disorders in a rural area in Iran. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted in randomly selected subjects from 5 villages in Tuyserkan County, North Western part of Iran. The 3 phases of stage 1 COPCORD (Community Oriented Program for Control Of Rheumatic Diseases) were done during the same day. Results: A total of 614 houses was visited, 1565 persons interviewed and 1192 persons examined. Musculoskeletal complaints ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

The relation between athletic sports and prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea in Iranian female athletes

Authers: Haleh Dadgostar, Mohammad Razi, Ashraf Aleyasin, Talia Alenabi, Saeideh Dahaghin

Abstract: In 1992, the concept of female athlete triad was introduced to describe the interrelated problems of amenorrhea, eating disorders and osteoporosis seen in female athletes. To gain a clearer picture of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in Iran, one of the main components of the female athlete triad, we therefore established this study on the prevalence of amenorrhea/ oligomenorrhea in elite Iranian female athletes, also evaluating the risk factors of these disorders in the same population. Methods: This ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

The prevalence of symptomatic hand osteoarthritis in Tehran: Community-oriented program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases- COPCORD

Authers: Dahaghin S, Jamshidi A.R, Tehrani Banihashemi A, Gholami J., Forouzanfar M.H, Akhlaghi M, Khabazi A.R, Noorolahzadeh E, Barghamdi M, Arabzadeh B, Davatchi F

Abstract: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in the world. This study presents the evidence on the prevalence of symptomatic hand osteoarthritis in urban community. To add to the evidence on the prevalence of symptomatic hand osteoarthritis in urban community. Methods: Inhabitants (age≥15 yrs) in 22 randomly selected districts (Tehran) participated in a Community-Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) evaluating major rheumatic disorders, including osteoarthritis. Eventually, 10, 291 inhabitants completed a Questionnaire (75% response-rate). ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

The prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints in a rural area in Iran: a WHO-ILAR COPCORD study (stage 1, rural study) in Iran

Authers: Fereydoun Davatchi, Arash Tehrani Banihashemi, Jaleh Gholami, Seyedeh Tahereh Faezi, Mohammad Hossein Forouzanfar, Mansour Salesi, Mansour Karimifar, Kamal Essalatmanesh, Mojgan Barghamdi, Elham Noorolahzadeh, Saideh Dahaghin, Johannes J. Rasker

Abstract: The objective of this study is to study the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints and disorders in a rural area in Iran. Interviews were conducted in randomly selected subjects from five villages in Tuyserkan County, northwestern part of Iran. The three phases of stage 1 Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases were done during the same day. A total of 614 houses was visited, 1,565 persons interviewed, and 1,192 persons examined. Musculoskeletal complaints during the past 7 days ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

Squatting, Sitting on the Floor, or Cycling: Are Life-Long Daily Activities Risk Factors for Clinical Knee Osteoarthritis? Stage III Results of a Community-Based Study

Authers: S. DAHAGHIN, S. A. TEHRANI-BANIHASHEMI, S. T. FAEZI, A. R. JAMSHIDI, F. DAVATCHI

Abstract: To evaluate the association between occupations, sports, life-long daily activities, and knee osteoarthritis. Methods. In this case–control study, we randomly recruited 480 subjects with knee osteoarthritis, who had participated in the first stage of a community-based study in Tehran, and compared them with 490 controls. A questionnaire was used to record all occupations, sports, and the details of 10 daily activities. The mean  SD hours/day spent on these activities were calculated and compared ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

Risk factors of knee osteoarthritis, WHO-ILAR-COPCORD study

Authers: Dahaghin S, Tehrani- Banihashemi SA, Frouzanfar MH, Barghamdi M, Norollahzadeh E, Gholami J., Faezi, ST.1, Davatchi F

Abstract: To evaluate the association between age, sex, BMI, waist/hip ratio, smoking, religion, ethnicity, education and knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Eligible subjects were randomly included from participants of Tehran COPCORD study, of whom 480 subjects with knee osteoarthritis were compared to 490 subjects without (case-control study). Using a questionnaire developed by COPCORD group (Asia & Oceania), we enquired about the risk factors of knee osteoarthritis i.e. age, sex, BMI, Waist/Hip ratio, religion, ethnicity, education and smoking. Knee osteoarthritis was ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

Rheumatology in Iran

Authers: Fereydoun DAVATCHI

Abstract: Rheumatology in Iran started in the 1960s by a group of eight rheumatologists trained in France and Switzerland. The Iranian Rheumatology Society was founded in 1973. Academic rheumatology started in the city of Teheran (capital of Iran), by the Tehran University and by the National University in the ’60s. Later, Shiraz University and Mashhad University followed. After the creation of the subspecialty Board of Rheumatology in 1985, other universities graduallycreated their rheumatology sections with ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

Effect of conjugated linoleic acid, vitamin E and their combination on lipid profi les and blood pressure of Iranian adults with active rheumatoid arthritis

Authers: Naheed Aryaeian1, Farhad Shahram2, Mahmoud Djalali1, Mohammad R Eshragian, Abolghasem Djazayeri, Abdolfatah Sarrafnejad, Nasim Naderi, Maryam Chamari, Fariha Fatehi, Mahnaz Zarei

Abstract: Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs), vitamin E, and combination of these nutrients on serum lipid profi les and blood pressure (BP) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 87 patients with active RA were divided into four groups receiving one of the following daily supplements for three months: Group C: CLAs 2.5 g equivalent to 2 g ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

در خون و ارتباط آنها با علايم بيماري در بيماران مبتلا به A و E بررسي مقدار کاتالاز، ويتامينهاي آرتريت روماتوئيد مراجعه کننده به مركز تحقيقات روماتولوژي بيمارستان شريعتي

مولف: دکتر ناهيد آريائيان،دكتر محمود جلالي،دكتر فرهاد شهرام،دكتر حجت زراعتي،دکتر نغمه ضيايي،فريبا فاتحي

خلاصه: پيش زمينه و هدف: آرتريت روماتوئيد يك بيماري سيستميك مزمن با علت ناشناخته است. در سالهاي اخير عليرغم مطالعات زياد ي که بر ر وي تاثي ر احتمالي گونههاي واکنشگر با اكسيژن بر ايجاد آرتريت روماتوئيد انجام شده است، ارتباط استرس اکسيداتيو با علايم بيماري بررسي نگرديده است. اين مطالعه سر م بيمارا ن مبتلا به آرتري ت A و ويتامين E با هدف تعيين ميزان فعاليت آنزيم آنتي اكسيداني كاتالاز و ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

Gluten sensitivity enteropathy in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis

Authers: Ramin Shakeri،Farhad Zaman،Rasoul Sotoudehmanesh،Afsaneh Amiri (،Mehdi Mohamadnejad،Fereydoun Davatchi،Ali Mohammadi Karakani،Reza Malekzadeh،Farhad Shahram

Abstract: Background: Gluten sensitive enteropathy (GSE) is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten-containing grains in susceptible individuals. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) may be the sole manifestation of GSE. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gluten sensitivity enteropathy (GSE) in a large group of patients with RAS and assess the efficacy of gluten free diet (GFD) on the improvement of aphthous lesions in those who were diagnosed with GSE. Methods: ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

Squatting, Sitting on the Floor, or Cycling: Are Life-Long Daily Activities Risk Factors for Clinical Knee Osteoarthritis? Stage III Results of a Community-Based Study

Authers: S. DAHAGHIN, S. A. TEHRANI-BANIHASHEMI, S. T. FAEZI, A. R. JAMSHIDI, F. DAVATCHI

Abstract: Objective. To evaluate the association between occupations, sports, life-long daily activities, and knee osteoarthritis. Methods. In this case–control study, we randomly recruited 480 subjects with knee osteoarthritis, who had participated in the first stage of a community-based study in Tehran, and compared them with 490 controls. A questionnaire was used to record all occupations, sports, and the details of 10 daily activities. The mean  SD hours/day spent on these activities were calculated and ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

Effect of early treatment in polymyositis and dermatomyositis

Authers: Naji Peyman, Shahram Farhad, Nadji Abdolhadi, Davatchi Fereydoun

Abstract: Aim: To compare the effect of early and late onset of treatment in patients with polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM). Methods: In a cohort study, all adult patients with definite diagnosis of PM or DM treated for at least 12 months were included. They were divided into two groups according to the time of treatment onset: Early (within 3 three months) and Late (after 3 three months). The number of ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

Longitudinal Study of Chlorambucil in Ocular Abstract Manifestations of Behçet’s Disease

Authers: Fereydon Davatchi, Hormoz Chams, Farhad Shahram, Abdol-Hadi Nadji, Cheyda Chams-Davatchi, Bahar Sadeghi-Abdollahi, Masoumeh Akhlaghi, Tahereh Faeizi, Ahmad-Reza Jamshidi, Mahmood Akbarian, Farhad Gharibdoost

Abstract: Cytotoxic drugs are the gold standard and the first line treatment for ophthalmological manifestations of Behçet’s Disease (BD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate eyes with chlorambucil on long-term follow-up, in a longitudinal study on 15 years. Methods: Chlorambucil was given as 0.2 to 0.3 mg per kilogram of body weight and per day. Prednisolone was concomitantly given as 0.5 mg per kilogram of body weight. Prednisolone was tapered ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

For Peer Review Only Squatting, sitting on the floor, or cycling: are life-long daily activities risk factors for clinical knee osteoarthritis?

Authers: Dahaghin S. MD, PhD, Tehrani-Banihashemi SA. MD, MPH, Faezi, ST. MD, Jamshidi AR. MD, Prof Davatchi F, MD

Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the association between occupation, sport, life-long daily activities, and knee osteoarthritis. Method: We randomly recruited 480 subjects with knee osteoarthritis who had participated in an earlier community-based study (Tehran-COPCORD, stage-I); they were compared with 490 controls (case-control study). A questionnaire was used to record all occupations/sports, plus details of the following daily activities: standing, walking on flat ground, walking up/downhill, sitting on the floor, sitting on a chair, squatting, knee-bending, cycling, climbing stairs, and ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

Isolated Hematuria in SLE Patients and its Association with Proteinuria, Urinary Cast and SLE Disease Activity

Authers: M. Akbarian, H. Soleymani, F. Gharibdoost, A. Nadji, A.R. Jamshidi, , F. Shahram, M. Akhlaghi, S. Khosravi, S. Almasi, Fereydoun Davatchi

Abstract: Isolated hematuria and its association with proteinuria, and urinary cast and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease activity, and decision for renal biopsy is a dilemma for physician in SLE patients. The aim of this study was to investigate 1. whether isolated hematuria is associated with active SLE, 2. to determine duration between hematuria and proteinuria and urinary cast, and 3. to determine renal histological type in SLE patients with isolated hematuria. All episodes of ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

HLA-B27 subtypes and tumor necrosis factor α promoter region polymorphism in Iranian patients with ankylosing spondylitis

Authers: Mohammad Hossein Nicknam, Mahdi Mahmoudi, Ali Akbar Amirzargar1, Ahmad Reza Jamshidi, Nima Rezaei, Behrouz Nikbin

Abstract: Background. HLA-B27 is an MHC class I molecule that is strongly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). TNF-α, as an important cytokine in inflammatory joint disease, might have a role in the process of AS. This study was performed to determine HLA-B27 subtypes among Iranian patients with AS, and to investigate TNF-α gene polymorphisms in the patient groups. Methods. Ninety seven AS patients (74 HLAB27- positive and 23 HLA-B27-negative) and 137 healthy normal subjects (2 ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

High prevalence of low bone density in young Iranian healthy individuals

Authers: Iraj Salehi, Shabnam Khazaeli, Seyed Reza Najafizadeh, Haleh Ashraf, Mahdi Malekpour

Abstract: With the increasing life expectancy, osteoporosis is becoming a major worldwide health problem, more particularly in the Middle East region. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip, lumbar spine, and forearm was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar) in 2085 (25% men, 75% women) healthy Iranian subjects aged 20–88 yr. The prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in at least one measured site in subjects aged 50 yr and older were 36.1% and 43.9% in women, and 24.5% and ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

Translation and measuring the reliability of the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) in Iranian patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Authers: Rastmanesh R1, Faryar A2; Eghbali M, Shaabani Y1, Mazinani E, Ebrahimi AA, Jamshidi AR

Abstract: Evaluation of functional disability by using proper instruments, like Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is necessary not only for quality of life assessment, but also as a useful marker for disease activity. Stanford HAQ has been translated into many languages. The present study seeks to measure reliability of the Persian version of the Stanford HAQ. Persian version of the Stanford HAQ (PE-HAQ) with culturally necessary modifications of the arising, ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

Gluten sensitivity enteropathy in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis

Authers: Ramin Shakeri, Farhad Zamani, Rasoul Sotoudehmanesh, Afsaneh Amiri, Mehdi Mohamadnejad, Fereydoun Davatchi, Ali Mohammadi Karakani, Reza Malekzadeh, and Farhad Shahram

Abstract: Background: Gluten sensitive enteropathy (GSE) is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten-containing grains in susceptible individuals. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) may be the sole manifestation of GSE. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gluten sensitivity enteropathy (GSE) in a large group of patients with RAS and assess the efficacy of gluten free diet (GFD) on the improvement of aphthous lesions in those who were diagnosed with ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

Development of Rheumatology in Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Authers: Fereydoun Davatchi MD

Abstract: Rheumatology program at Tehran University was established by Fereydoun Davatchi in 1969. Later, Reza Moghtader, Firouz Panahi, and Amir-Khan Chafizadeh joined him. The first rheumatology outpatient clinic was founded in 1970. In 1974, the first rheumatology fellowship department was established along with a small research laboratory. The department expanded gradually to become the Rheumatology Research Center (RRC) in 1981. RRC was officially recognized in 1994 by the Ministry of Health and in 2001 as the Center of Excellence for Rheumatology in ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

Colchicine versus placebo in Behc¸et’s disease: randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial

Authers: Fereydoun Davatchi, Bahar Sadeghi Abdollahi, Arash Tehrani Banihashemi, Farhad Shahram, Abdolhadi Nadji, Hormoz Shams, Cheyda Chams-Davatchi

Abstract: The effect of colchicine was evaluated in a large cohort of Behc¸et’s disease (BD) patients and compared to placebo. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial, 169 patients without major organ involvement were selected consecutively. They fulfilled the International Criteria for Behc¸et’s Disease. Patients were randomly assigned to colchicine or placebo. At 4 months, they were swapped over (colchicine to placebo, placebo to colchicine) for another 4 months. The primary outcome was the overall disease activity index, the IBDDAM. ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

Longitudinal Study of Chlorambucil in Ocular Abstract Manifestations of Behçet’s Disease

Authers: Fereydoune Davatchi, Hormoz Chams, Farhad Shahram, Abdol-Hadi Nadji, Cheyda Chams-Davatchi, Bahar Sadeghi Abdillahi, Masoumeh Akhlaghi, Tahereh Faeizi, Ahmad-Reza Jamshidi, Mahmood Akbarian, Farhad Gharibdoost

Abstract: Cytotoxic drugs are the gold standard and the first line treatment for ophthalmological manifestations of Behçet’s Disease (BD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate eyes with chlorambucil on long-term follow-up, in a longitudinal study on 15 years. Methods: Chlorambucil was given as 0.2 to 0.3 mg per kilogram of body weight and per day. Prednisolone was concomitantly given as 0.5 mg per kilogram of body weight. Prednisolone was tapered ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

Evaluation of Osteoporosis in a Selected Group of Iranian Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

Authers: Mikaeli J1, Goharifar H2, Shahram F2, Rabbani R1, Modirzadeh AS1, Hatmi ZN3, Vahedi H, Olfati G1, Nasseri-moghaddam S1, Malekzadeh R1

Abstract: Osteoporosis is a preventable and treatable disorder, reported with higher prevalence patients with ulcerative colitis but their relationship is controversial. Osteoporosis in these patients may be attributes to corticosteroid use, malnutrition and reduced intake of calcium and Vitamin D, lower levels of sex hormones, chronic inflammation and inflammatory cytokines. The aim of study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) of femoral neck and lumbar spine in ulcerative colitis patients with age and sex ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

The Comparison of Serum Zinc Level in Behcet Patients and Healthy Controls

Authers: Kamal Esalatmanesh MD, Ahmadreza Jamshidi MD, Farhad Shahram MD, Fereydoun Davatchi MD, Zahra Soleimani MD, Shohreh Movahedi MD*****, , Mansour Salesi MD, Mansoor Karimifar MD

Abstract: Zinc was suggested as an antioxidant and immunomodulator trace element in parallel with other trace elements and antioxidant enzymes. Recently selenium deficiency was indicated in Behcet disease. In this study, we evaluated the correlation of serum zinc level and Behcet disease. Background: In a cross-sectional, descriptive study serum level of zinc was measured in 49 cases satisfying International Study Group criteria and 51 controls. Serum zinc level was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry and compared the mean of serum ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

Comparison of existing disease activity indices in the follow-up of patients with Behc¸et’s disease

Authers: Farhad Shahram, Alireza Khabbazi, Abdolhadi Nadji, Naghmeh Ziaie, Arash Tehrani Banihashemi, Fereydoun Davatchi

Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the concordance between the Iranian Behc¸et’s disease dynamic activity measure (IBDDAM) or the Behc¸et’s disease current activity form (BDCAF) and expert physician global assessment (PGA) in the evaluation of disease activity changes in Behc¸et’s disease (BD). In a prospective study, 117 consecutive patients with BD were evaluated in their two consecutive follow-up visits by IBDDAM and BDCAF. The change in disease activity was determined (increased, unchanged or decreased) according to the ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

Effect of ethnic origin (Caucasians versus Turks) on the prevalence of rheumatic diseases: a WHO-ILAR COPCORD urban study in Iran

Authers: Fereydoun Davatchi،Ahmad-Reza Jamshidi،Arash Tehrani Banihashemi،Jaleh Gholami،Mohammad Hossein Forouzanfar،Massoomeh Akhlaghi،Mojgan Barghamdi،Elham Noorolahzadeh،Ali-Reza Khabazi،Mansour Salesi،Amir-Hossein Salari،Mansoor Karimifar،Kamal Essalat-Manesh

Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints and rheumatic disorders in Caucasians and Turks in an identical environment. Subjects were selected randomly for an interview from Tehran’s 22 districts. The Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases questionnaire was filled in, positive cases were examined, and if needed, laboratory or X-ray tests were performed. A total of 4,096 houses were visited, and 10,291 persons were interviewed. They were 71.4% Caucasians and 23.1% ... سال انتشار: 2009