تالیفات

 

Behcet’s Disease: Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Diagnosis

مولف: Fereydoun Davatchi, Cheyda Chams-davatchi, Hormoz Shams, Farhad Shahram, Abdolhadi Nadji, Massoomeh Akhlaghi, Tahreh Faezi, Zahra Ghodsi, Bahar Sadeghi Abdollahi, Farimah Ashofteh, Negin Mohtasham, Hoda Kavosi & Mariam Masoumi

خلاصه: Introduction: Behcet’s Disease (BD) is classified among vasculitides. The aim of this review was to put together different known reports in order to help the reader to better understand the disease, to avoid the frequent misdiagnosis, and to decide the best treatment. Areas covered: a) Epidemiology: BD is rare, and is seen along the Silk Road, from 20 to 420/100,000 in Turkey and 80/100,000 in Iran, to 0.64/100,000 in the UK. b) Clinical manifestations: oral ... سال انتشار: 2017
 

Adult Behcet’s disease in Iran: analysis of 6075 patients

Authers: Fereydoun DAVATCHI, Cheyda CHAMS-DAVATCHI, Hormoz SHAMS, Abdolhadi NADJI, Tahereh FAEZI, Massoomeh AKHLAGHI, Bahar SADEGHI ABDOLLAHI, Farimah ASHOFTEH, Zahra GHODSI, Negin MOHTASHAM and Farhad SHAHRAM

Abstract: This is an analysis of adult Behcet’s disease (BD) in Iran, from the Iran Registry of 7187 BD patients, gathered from 1975 to 2014, among which 6075 were adults (84.5%). Patients: Patients were seen by a multidisciplinary team of experts. The diagnosis was by expert opinion, not by any specific classification/diagnosis criteria. However, 96.8% of them were classified by the International Criteria for Behcet’s Disease (ICBD). Adult BDs were patients who had their first ... سال انتشار: 2016
 

Validation of the revised International Criteria for Behcet’s Disease (ICBD) in Iran

Authers: Fereydoun Davatchi & Bahar Sadeghi Abdollahi & Cheyda Chams-Davatchi & Farhad Shahram & Abdolhadi Nadji & Hormoz Shams & Tahereh Faezi & Massoomeh Akhlaghi & Farimah Ashofteh & Maryam Mataji & Kamran Moradi & Negin Mohtasham

Abstract: The first internationally agreed criteria for Behcet’s disease were the International Study Group (ISG) criteria. It had very high specificity, but lacked good sensitivity, missing an important subset of patients. The International Criteria for Behcet’s Disease (ICBD) were created in 2006 to overcome this lack of sensitivity. It was revised in 2010. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the revised International Criteria for Behcet’s Disease (rICBD) in Iran. In this study, the ISG ... سال انتشار: 2015
 

Characterization of the major histocompatibility complex locus association with Behçet’s disease in Iran

مولف: Joana M Xavier1, 2, Fereydoun Davatchi3, Olga Abade4, Farhad Shahram3, Vânia Francisco1, 2, Bahar Sadeghi Abdollahi3, Hélder Trindade4, Abdolhadi Nadji3, Niloofar Mojarad Shafiee3, Fahmida Ghaderibarmi3, Dário Ligeiro4 and Sofia A Oliveira1, 2*

خلاصه: Introduction: The aim of this study was to characterize the association of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B alleles and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with Behçet’s disease (BD) in an Iranian dataset. Methods: The association of three SNPs in the MHC region previously identified as the most associated in high-density genotyping studies was tested in a case–control study on 973 BD patients and 825 controls from Iran, and the association of HLA-B ... سال انتشار: 2015
 

The relationship between plasma homocysteine level and HLA-B51 in patients with Behcet’s disease: a case-control study

Authers: Soraya SHADMANFAR, 1, 2 Farhad SHAHRAM, 2 Abdolhadi NADJI, 2 Maassoumeh AKHLAGHI, 2 Seyedeh T. FAEZI, 2 Bahar SADEGHI-ABDOLLAHI, 2 Alireza FARIDAR, 2 Nima MADANCHI3 and Fereydoun DAVATCHI2

Abstract: Background: Various coagulation disorders have been reported to explain hypercoagulability state in Behcet’s disease (BD). A possible negative association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B51 and increased homocysteine level has been suggested in a previous report from Iranian patients with BD. The aim of this study was to find any possible relationship between plasma homocysteine levels and HLA-B51. Methods: In a case-control study, BD patients (fulfilling the new International Criteria for BD) and controls (who had ... سال انتشار: 2014
 

Genital aphthosis in Behçet’s disease: Is it associated with less eye involvement?

Authers: Seyedeh Tahereh Faezi · Cheyda Chams‑Davatchi · S. Zahra Ghodsi · Farhad Shahram · Abdolhadi Nadji · Massoomeh Akhlaghi · Kamran Moradi · Pedram Paragomi · Golnaz Ghazizadeh Esslami · Bahar Sadeghi Abdollahi · Farimah Ashofteh · Fereydoun Davatchi

Abstract: Behçet’s disease (BD) is a multisystem disease classified among the vasculitides with various clinical features. Genital aphthosis (GA) is one of the major manifestations of BD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of BD patients with GA. A cross-sectional sample of BD patients registered in 37 years was selected. We determined clinical and laboratory features of BD patients with GA (GA cases) and compared them with the patients who never developed GA (non-GA cases). The ... سال انتشار: 2014
 

Combination of pulse cyclophosphamide and azathioprine in ocular manifestations of Behcet’s disease: longitudinal study of up to 10 years

Authers: Fereydoun DAVATCHI, Bahar SADEGHI ABDOLLAHI, Hormoz SHAMS, Farhad SHAHRAM, Abdolhadi NADJI, Cheyda CHAMS-DAVATCHI, Tahereh FAEZI, Massoomeh AKHLAGHI, Zahra GHODSI, Farimah ASHOFTEH and Negin MOHTASHAM

Abstract: Aim: Ocular lesions of Behcet’s disease (BD) need aggressive treatment to prevent severe loss of vision or blindness. Cytotoxic drugs are the main therapeutic agents and the first line treatment. Retinal vasculitis is the most aggressive lesion of ocular manifestations and predicts a worse systemic outcome. We present here the outcome with a combination of pulse cyclophosphamide, azathioprine and prednisolone, on long-term usage, up to 10 years, on 295 patients (18 493 eye-months of ... سال انتشار: 2014
 

The perspectives of iranian physicians and patients towards patient decision aids: a qualitative study

Authers: Hamideh Rashidian1, 2, Saharnaz Nedjat2, 3*, Reza Majdzadeh2, 3, Jaleh Gholami3, Leila Haghjou3, Bahar Sadeghi Abdollahi4, Fereydoun Davatchi4 and Arash Rashidian3, 5

Abstract: Patient preference is one of the main components of clinical decision making, therefore leading to the development of patient decision aids. The goal of this study was to describe physicians’ and patients’ viewpoints on the barriers and limitations of using patient decision aids in Iran, their proposed solutions, and, the benefits of using these tools. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2011 in Iran by holding in-depth interviews with 14 physicians and 8 arthritis ... سال انتشار: 2013
 

Impact of the positive pathergy test on the performance of classification/diagnosis criteria for Behcet’s disease

Authers: Fereydoun Davatchi • Bahar Sadeghi Abdollahi • Cheyda Chams-Davatchi • Farhad Shahram • Zahra Ghodsi • Abdolhadi Nadji • Massoomeh Akhlaghi • Tahereh Faezi • Hormoz Shams • Roghieh Larimi • Farima Ashofteh

Abstract: The only diagnostic test that currently exists for Behcet’s disease (BD) is the pathergy test. A positive pathergy test (PPT) is an important component of many of the 16 sets of classification/diagnosis criteria used to diagnose BD. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of a PTT in the performance of the diagnosis/ classification criteria for BD. Patients and methods All patients listed in the BD registry of the Rheumatology Research Center, Tehran (6,727) and 4,648 ... سال انتشار: 2013
 

Gene expression profiling and association studies implicate the neuregulin signaling pathway in Behçet's disease susceptibility

Authers: Joana M. Xavier & Tiago Krug & Fereydoun Davatchi & Farhad Shahram & Benedita V. Fonseca & Gorete Jesus & Filipe Barcelos & Joana Vedes & Manuel Salgado & Bahar Sadeghi Abdollahi & Abdolhadi Nadji & Maria Francisca Moraes-Fontes & Niloofar Mojarad Shafiee

Abstract: Behçet's disease (BD) is a complex disease with genetic and environmental risk factors implicated in its etiology; however, its pathophysiology is poorly understood. To decipher BD's genetic underpinnings, we combined gene expression profiling with pathway analysis and association studies. We compared the gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 15 patients and 14 matched controls using Affymetrix microarrays and found that the neuregulin signaling pathway was over-represented among the differentially expressed genes. The Epiregulin (EREG), Amphiregulin (AREG), ... سال انتشار: 2013
 

Mesenchymal stem cell therapy unable to rescue the vision from advanced Behcet’s disease retinal vasculitis: report of three patients

Authers: Fereydoun DAVATCHI, 1 Behrooz NIKBIN, 2 Hormoz SHAMS, 1 Bahar SADEGHI ABDOLLAHI, 1 Mandana MOHYEDDIN2 and Farhad SHAHRAM1

Abstract: Retinal vasculitis (RV) is the most aggressive lesion of ocular manifestations of Behcet’s disease, seen in 32.1% of patients. Although visual acuity (VA) improves with early and aggressive treatment, in the long run it is seen in only 48% of patients. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation (MSCT) can theoretically reverse the RV process. Patients and Methods: Three patients with advanced RV and very low VA were selected. Eyes selected for MSCT were legally blind (no ... سال انتشار: 2013
 

Methotrexate in ocular manifestations of Behcet’s disease: a longitudinal study up to 15 years

Authers: Fereydoun DAVATCHI, Hormoz SHAMS, Farhad SHAHRAM, Abdolhadi NADJI, Cheyda CHAMS-DAVATCHI, Bahar SADEGHI ABDOLLAHI, Tahereh FAEZI, Massoomeh AKHLAGHI and Farimah ASHOFTEH

Abstract: Ocular manifestations of Behcet’s disease (BD) need aggressive treatment to prevent severe loss of vision or blindness. Cytotoxic drugs are the main therapeutic agents and the first line treatment. Methotrexate is the least toxic, used mainly for posterior uveitis. We present here the outcome of eye lesions with methotrexate and prednisolone, in a longitudinal study of up to 15 years, on 682 patients (5447 eye-years of follow-up). Patients and methods: Methotrexate was started at ... سال انتشار: 2013
 

The efficacy of Back School on chronic low back pain of workers of a pharmaceutical company in a Tehran Suburb. COPCORD stage II study

Authers: Bahar SADEGHI-ABDOLLAHI, Anita ESHAGHI, Siavash Nejad HOSSEINI, Mojgan GHAHREMANI and Fereydoun DAVATCHI

Abstract: Low back pain (LBP) is the second most frequent reason for seeking medical advice. Various treatments are proposed from no intervention, to analgesics, rest, exercises, local interventions and surgical procedures. Results and outcomes are differently reported. Back School (BS), a combination of patient education and physical exercises, seems to have good results. The aim of this study was to check the effect of BS in factory workers. Patients and Methods: All (70) workers were interviewed ... سال انتشار: 2012
 

Performance of the 2010 rheumatoid arthritis classification criteria

Authers: Fereydoun DAVATCHI, 1 Iraj SALEHI ABARI, 1 Soosan SOROOSH, 2 Mohsen SOROOSH2 and Bahar SADEGHI ABDOLLAHI1

Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) needs early treatment to improve clinical outcome by reducing joint damage, radiographic progression and disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 2010 Rheumatoid Arthritis Classification Criteria for its ability to classify RA patients, in their early stages, not exceeding 12 months of disease progression. Methods: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were selected from August to December 2010, among those coming for their follow-up. The inclusion criteria were patients with not ... سال انتشار: 2012
 

Behcet’s disease: is there a gender influence on clinical manifestations?

Authers: Fereydoun DAVATCHI, Farhad SHAHRAM, Cheyda CHAMS-DAVATCHI, Bahar SADEGHI ABDOLLAHI, Hormoz SHAMS, Abdolhadi NADJI, Tahereh FAEZI, Massoomeh AKHLAGHI, Zahra GHODSI, Roghieh LARIMI and Farima ASHOFTEH

Abstract: In Behcet’s disease (BD), it is customary to believe that men are more affected than women, major organs are more involved in men, and they have worse outcomes. The male-to-female ratio is reported from 5.37 to 1 (Egypt), to 0.38 to 1 (US). If in the majority of reports BD was seen more frequently in men, in some others it was more frequent in women. The aim of this study was to examine ... سال انتشار: 2012
 

Association Study of IL10 and IL23R–IL12RB2 in Iranian Patients With Behc¸et’s Disease

Authers: Joana M. Xavier, 1 Farhad Shahram, 2 Fereydoun Davatchi, 2 Alexandra Rosa, 3 Jorge Crespo, 4 Bahar Sadeghi Abdollahi, 2 Abdolhadi Nadji, 2 Gorete Jesus, 5 Filipe Barcelos, 6 Jose´ Vaz Patto, 6 Niloofar Mojarad Shafiee, 2 Fahmida Ghaderibarim, 2 and Sofia A. Oliveira1

Abstract: Independent replication of the findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) remains the gold standard for results validation. Our aim was to test the association of Behc¸et’s disease (BD) with the interleukin-10 gene (IL10) and the IL-23 receptor–IL-12 receptor 2 (IL23R–IL12RB2) locus, each of which has been previously identified as a risk factor for BD in 2 different GWAS. Methods. Six haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL10 and 42 in IL23R–IL12RB2 were genotyped in 973 Iranian patients with BD and 637 non-BD ... سال انتشار: 2012
 

Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for knee osteoarthritis. Preliminary report of four patients

Authers: Fereydoun DAVATCHI, Bahar SADEGHI ABDOLLAHI, Mandana MOHYEDDIN, Farhad SHAHRAM1, Behrooz NIKBIN

Abstract: Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a cartilage degenerative process, involving the immune system, producing local inflammatory reactions, with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinases. No treatment is still available to improve or reverse the process. Stem cell therapy opened new horizons for treatment of many incurable diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) due to their multi-lineage potential, immunosuppressive activities, limited immunogenicity and relative ease of growth in culture, have attracted attentions for clinical use. Aim: The aim of ... سال انتشار: 2011
 

Gender influence on ocular manifestations and their outcome in Behcet’s Disease. A long-term follow-up of up to 20 years

Authers: Fereydoun Davatchi, Farhad Shahram, Hormoz Shams, Abdolhadi Nadji, Cheyda Chams-Davatchi, Massoomeh Akhlaghi, Seyedeh Tahereh Faezi, Farima Ashofteh, Bahar Sadeghi-Abdollahi

Abstract: It is of general belief that males are prone to more frequent, more severe manifestations, and less favorable outcome. We evaluated this hypothesis in ophthalmological manifestations (OM) of Behcet's Disease (BD). Visual acuity (VA), anterior uveitis, posterior uveitis (PU), and retinal vasculitis (RV) were checked, according to Ben Ezra, in 1,515 patients with eye lesions. The data at baseline and last visit were compared. Male/female ratio was 1.2 in the BD registry (6,500 patients) and 1.51 for OM patients ... سال انتشار: 2011
 

Behcet’s disease: is there a gender influence on clinical manifestations?

Authers: Fereydoun DAVATCHI, Farhad SHAHRAM, Cheyda CHAMS-DAVATCHI, Bahar SADEGHI ABDOLLAHI, Hormoz SHAMS, Abdolhadi NADJI, Tahereh FAEZI, Massoomeh AKHLAGHI, Zahra GHODSI, Roghieh LARIMI, Farima ASHOFTEH

Abstract: In Behcet’s disease (BD), it is customary to believe that men are more affected than women, major organs are more involved in men, and they have worse outcomes. The male-to-female ratio is reported from 5.37 to 1 (Egypt), to 0.38 to 1 (US). If in the majority of reports BD was seen more frequently in men, in some others it was more frequent in women. The aim of this study was to examine ... سال انتشار: 2011
 

Validation of the International Criteria for Behc¸et’s disease (ICBD) in Iran

Authers: Fereydoun DAVATCHI, Bahar SADEGHI ABDOLLAHI, Farhad SHAHRAM, Abdolhadi NADJI, Cheyda CHAMS-DAVATCHI, Hormoz SHAMS, Nasim NADERI, Massoomeh AKHLAGHI, Tahereh FAEZI, Alireza FARIDAR

Abstract: To evaluate the performance of the new International Criteria for Behc¸et’s Disease (ICBD) in Iran. The ICBD was created in 2006 to replace the International Study Group (ISG) criteria (created in 1990). In this study, 14 existing diagnosis/classification criteria (Curth, Hewitt, Mason and Barnes, Japan original, Hubault and Hamza, O’Duffy, Cheng and Zhang, Dilsen, Japan revised, International Study Group, Iran traditional, Iran Classification Tree, revised Dilsen, Korea), were evaluated and compared to ICBD by ... سال انتشار: 2010
 

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy for Knee Osteoarthritis. Preliminary Report of Four Patients

Authers: Fereydoun Davatchi, Bahar Sadeghi Abdollahi, Mandana Mohyeddin, Farhad Shahram*, , Behrooz Nikbin

Abstract: Osteoarthritis is a cartilage degenerative process, involving the immune system, producing local inflammatory reactions, with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinases. No treatment is still available to improve or reverse the process. Stem cell therapy opened new horizons for treatment of many incurable diseases. Mesenchymal stem cells due to their multi-lineage potential, immunosuppressive activities, limited immunogenicity, and relative ease of growth in culture have attracted attentions for clinical use. The aim of this study was to look ... سال انتشار: 2010
 

Gender influence on ocular manifestations and their outcome in Behcet’s Disease. A long-term follow-up of up to 20 years

Authers: Fereydoun Davatchi, Farhad Shahram, Hormoz Shams, Abdolhadi Nadji, Cheyda Chams-Davatchi, Massoomeh Akhlaghi, Seyedeh Tahereh Faezi, Farima Ashofteh, Bahar Sadeghi-Abdollahi

Abstract: It is of general belief that males are prone to more frequent, more severe manifestations, and less favorable outcome. We evaluated this hypothesis in ophthalmological manifestations (OM) of Behcet's Disease (BD). Visual acuity (VA), anterior uveitis, posterior uveitis (PU), and retinal vasculitis (RV) were checked, according to Ben Ezra, in 1,515 patients with eye lesions. The data at baseline and last visit were compared. Male/female ratio was 1.2 in the BD registry (6,500 patients) and 1.51 for OM patients ... سال انتشار: 2010
 

Rituximab in intractable ocular lesions of Behcet’s disease; randomized single-blind control study (pilot study)

Authers: Fereydoun DAVATCHI, Hormoz SHAMS, Mozhgan REZAIPOOR, Bahar SADEGHI-ABDOLLAHI, Farhad SHAHRAM, Abdolhadi NADJI, Cheyda CHAMS-DAVATCHI, Massoomeh AKHLAGHI, Tahereh FAEZI, Nasim NADERI

Abstract: Ocular lesions, the main morbidity of Behcet’s disease (BD), are the most difficult to treat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of rituximab. Methods: Inclusion criteria were retinal vasculitis and edema, resistant to cytotoxic drugs. Twenty patients were randomized to a rituximab group (RG) or cytotoxic combination therapy group (CCTG). Rituximab was given in two 1000-mg courses (15-day interval). Subjects received methotrexate (15 mg/weekly) with prednisolone (0.5 mg/kg per day). The ... سال انتشار: 2010
 

Gender influence on ocular manifestations and their outcome in Behcet’s Disease. A long-term follow-up of up to 20 years

Authers: Fereydoun Davatchi, Farhad Shahram, Hormoz Shams, Abdolhadi Nadji, Cheyda Chams-Davatchi, Massoomeh Akhlaghi, Seyedeh Tahereh Faezi, Farima Ashofteh, Bahar Sadeghi-Abdollahi

Abstract: It is of general belief that males are prone to more frequent, more severe manifestations, and less favorable outcome. We evaluated this hypothesis in ophthalmological manifestations (OM) of Behcet's Disease (BD). Visual acuity (VA), anterior uveitis, posterior uveitis (PU), and retinal vasculitis (RV) were checked, according to Ben Ezra, in 1,515 patients with eye lesions. The data at baseline and last visit were compared. Male/female ratio was 1.2 in the BD registry (6,500 patients) and 1.51 for OM patients ... سال انتشار: 2010
 

Behcet’s disease: from east to west

Authers: Fereydoun Davatchi, Farhad Shahram, Cheyda Chams-Davatchi, Hormoz Shams, Abdolhadi Nadji, Massoomeh Akhlaghi, Tahereh Faezi, Zahra Ghodsi, Alireza Faridar, Farima Ashofteh, Bahar Sadeghi Abdollahi

Abstract: Behcet's disease (BD) is classified among vasculitides. There are actually five nationwide surveys of BD: Iran, Japan, China, Korea, and Germany. Among case series, four are on more than 200 cases (Turkey, Morocco, Tunisia, and UK). BD was classically seen around the Silk Route. Now, it is seen everywhere. The male to female ratios were, respectively (in nationwide surveys), 1.19, 0.98, 1.34, 0.63, and 1.40 to 1. The mean age at onset was 26.2, 35.7, 33.8, 29, and ... سال انتشار: 2010
 

Behcet’s disease in Iran: analysis of 6500 cases

Authers: Fereydoun DAVATCHI, Farhad SHAHRAM, Cheyda CHAMS-DAVATCHI, Hormoz SHAMS, Abdolhadi NADJI, Massoomeh AKHLAGHI, Tahereh FAEZI, Zahra GHODSI, Roghieh LARIMI, Farima ASHOFTEH, Bahar SADEGHI ABDOLLAHI

Abstract: To identify the clinical picture of Behcet’s disease in a large cohort of patients (6500) in Iran, over a period of 35 years, and compare them with other large series from around the world. Methods: Patients with Behcet’s disease from all over Iran were seen in the Behcet’s Disease Research Unit by a multidisciplinary team (rheumatologists, dermatologists, and ophthalmologists). Diagnosis was based on ‘expert opinion’. Data were collected on a standardized data sheet (105 ... سال انتشار: 2010
 

Longitudinal Study of Chlorambucil in Ocular Abstract Manifestations of Behçet’s Disease

Authers: Fereydon Davatchi, Hormoz Chams, Farhad Shahram, Abdol-Hadi Nadji, Cheyda Chams-Davatchi, Bahar Sadeghi-Abdollahi, Masoumeh Akhlaghi, Tahereh Faeizi, Ahmad-Reza Jamshidi, Mahmood Akbarian, Farhad Gharibdoost

Abstract: Cytotoxic drugs are the gold standard and the first line treatment for ophthalmological manifestations of Behçet’s Disease (BD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate eyes with chlorambucil on long-term follow-up, in a longitudinal study on 15 years. Methods: Chlorambucil was given as 0.2 to 0.3 mg per kilogram of body weight and per day. Prednisolone was concomitantly given as 0.5 mg per kilogram of body weight. Prednisolone was tapered ... سال انتشار: 2009
 

Colchicine versus placebo in Behc¸et’s disease: randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial

Authers: Fereydoun Davatchi, Bahar Sadeghi Abdollahi, Arash Tehrani Banihashemi, Farhad Shahram, Abdolhadi Nadji, Hormoz Shams, Cheyda Chams-Davatchi

Abstract: The effect of colchicine was evaluated in a large cohort of Behc¸et’s disease (BD) patients and compared to placebo. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial, 169 patients without major organ involvement were selected consecutively. They fulfilled the International Criteria for Behc¸et’s Disease. Patients were randomly assigned to colchicine or placebo. At 4 months, they were swapped over (colchicine to placebo, placebo to colchicine) for another 4 months. The primary outcome was the overall disease activity index, the IBDDAM. ... سال انتشار: 2009