Behavioral Problems in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Controlled Study to Examine the Risk of Psychopathology in a Chronic Pediatric Disorder

خلاصه: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) which consists of a heterogeneous group of chronic disorders (e.g., oligoarthritis, polyarthritis, and systemic arthritis) is an autoimmune, noninfectious inflammation of joints’ synovial membrane and connective tissues that lastsmore than 6 weeks [1, 2].The disorder has been identified all over the world in nearly all races and ethnicities with an average prevalence rate of 1 to 2 per 1,000 children [3]. Some children may experience JIA symptoms for only a few months while others will suffer the symptoms and their consequences for the rest of their lives. In addition to pain and physical limitations, childrenwith JIA may also experience high levels of stress during the course of their disease [4]. For example, theymay find performing daily classroom activities challenging during periods of symptom exacerbation. Moreover, they may feel altered body image, anxiety around social acceptance, and fears about prognosis, treatment process, and their future. In addition, frequent visits to the doctor, limiting their leisure time, and restricting their activities may also add further stress on the affected child as well as his/her family. Adjustment problems have also been reported among children with JIA as well as their family. For example, children with active JIA may experience irritability, regression to more infantile patterns of behavior, loss of appetite, weight loss, and behavioral