خلاصه: Introduction: The aim of this study was to characterize the association of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B alleles and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with Behçet’s disease (BD) in an Iranian dataset. Methods: The association of three SNPs in the MHC region previously identified as the most associated in high-density genotyping studies was tested in a case–control study on 973 BD patients and 825 controls from Iran, and the association of HLA-B alleles was tested in a subset of 681 patients and 414 controls. Results: We found that HLA-B*51 (P = 4.11 × 10−41, OR [95% CI] = 4.63[3.66-5.85]) and B*15 confer risk for BD (P = 2.83 × 10−2, OR [95% CI] = 1.75[1.08-2.84]) in Iranian, and in B*51 negative individuals, only the B*15 allele is significantly associated with BD (P = 2.51 × 10−3, OR [95% CI] = 2.40[1.37-4.20]). rs76546355, formerly known as rs116799036, located between HLA-B and MICA (MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A), demonstrated the same level of association with BD as HLA-B*51 (Padj = 1.78 × 10−46, OR [95% CI] = 5.46[4.21-7.09], and Padj = 8.34 × 10−48, OR [95% CI] = 5.44[4.20-7.05], respectively) in the HLA-B allelotyped subset, while rs2848713 was less associated (Padj = 7.14 × 10−35, OR [95% CI] = 3.73[2.97-4.69]) and rs9260997 was not associated (Padj = 1.00 × 10−1). Additionally, we found that B*51 genotype-phenotype correlations do not survive Bonferroni correction, while carriers of the rs76546355 risk allele predominate in BD cases with genital ulcers, positive pathergy test and positive BD family history (2.31 × 10−4 ≤ P ≤ 1.59 × 10−3). Conclusions: We found that the HLA-B*51 allele and the rs76546355/rs116799036 MHC SNP are independent genetic risk factors for BD in Iranian, and that positivity for the rs76546355/rs116799036 risk allele, but not for B*51, does correlate with specific demographic characteristics or clinical manifestations in BD patients.